Virtual Library

Many of these links donated by: Virtual Library for the History of Science, Technology & Medicine

Observations of the Bills of Mortality

Western Washington University –
John Graunt’s Observations on the Bills of Mortality (1662 edition)

  • General Observations upon the Casualties
  • Of Particular Casualties
  • Of the Plague
  • Other Observations upon the Plague, and Casualties
  • Of the Sickliness, Healthfulness, and Fruitfulness of Seasons
  • Of the difference between Burials, and Christnings
  • Of the difference between the numbers of Males, and Females
  • Of the growth of the City
  • Of the Inequality of Parishes
  • Of the number of Inhabitants
  • Of the Country Bills
  • The Conclusion
  • The Table of Casualties


A Short History of the Discovery and Treatment of Diabetes

National Applied Science –
Specializes in developing and manufacturing implantable biosensor devices.

  • A Brief History of Diabetes.
  • Information on Diabetes.
  • Children with Diabetes.


The National Health Museum

Incorporating Access Excellence
Classic Collection

  • Handwashing
  • The Mysteries of Aging: Is Diet a Contributing Factor?
  • The Heart and the Circulatory System
  • Genetic Counseling: Coping with the Human Impact of Genetic Disease
  • The Discovery Of Radioactivity: The Dawn of the Nuclear Age
  • Radioactivity: Historical Figures
  • How We See: The First Steps of Human Vision
  • Discovery, Chance and the Scientific Method
  • A Visit with Dr. Francis Crick
  • DNA Structure
  • Restriction Nucleases
  • Vaccines–How and Why?
  • Development of Polio Vaccines


Ancient Medicine / Medicina Antiqua

Sponsored by The Episcopal Academy, Merion, Pennsylvania 1906

  • Hypertext editions, translations of ancient medical works, AM/MA Essays, and other original contributions to Ancient Medicine/Medicina Antiqua pass
    through a process of peer review before being posted on the site.
  • Announcements and other communications are posted as received.


Museum of Contraception

Magazine article, published in SALON
Susan McCarthy

  • The world contains many museums of erotica (the largest is in Amsterdam), but just one Museum of Contraception.


Anesthesia History Association

Hosted by Dept. Anesthesiology
School of Medicine Univ. Miami

  • promote, stimulate and encourage research, study, interest and writing in the history of anesthesia and allied medical sciences;
  • to lend support to and cooperate with local, national and international organizations having similar purposes;
  • to foster and arrange meetings, forums, discussions, lectures and exhibitions as well as to issue publications and present awards


Antiquariat Für Medizin

Antiquarian Books on Medicine

  • Basic Online Catalogues Available for Browsing


Archives for Family Practice

American Academy of Family Physicians – AAFP

  • Mainly just a contact page with little information on their actual holdings


The Troubling Legacy of The Tuskegee Syphillis Study

Historical Collections
University of Virginia Health System

  • For 40 years from 1942 to 1972, 399 African American Males were denied treatment for syphilis and deceived by officials of the United States Health Service.
  • In the 25 years since the details were first revealed, the study has become a powerful symbol of racism in medicine, ethical misconduct in medical research and the abuse of the vulnerable.
  • See also Internet Resources on the Tuskegee Study (some broken links)

Bakken Library and Museum

A Library and Museum of Electricity in Life

A center for learning that furthers the understanding and applications of electricity and magnetism in the life sciences and medicine.

  • Founded in 1975 by Earl E. Bakken, inventor of the first transistorized cardiac
  • Includes a select listing of their 11,000 books and manuscripts, and a small image gallery.


American Association for the History of Medicine

North America’s oldest continuously functioning scholarly organization devoted to the study of all aspects of the history of the health professions

  • The Associations archives are maintained at the College of Physicians of Philadelphia –


Brief History of Computational Neuroscience

Computer Simulations with Neuron –
Duke University –

  • Simulations with Neuron – Manual


Brief History of the Basal Ganglia

Institute for Adaptive and Neural Computation (ANC)
Division of Informatics at the University of Edinburgh

  • Search for “Basal Ganglia” –


Cesarean Section — A Brief History

U.S. National Library of Medicine –

  • Information provided by American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (5 files)
  • National Library of Medicine exhibit on the History of Cesarean Section


Charles Woodward Memorial Room

Woodward Biomedical Library, University of British Columbia –

  • History of the Charles Woodward Memorial Room
  • Houses the W.C. Gibson collection in the history of medicine and science
  • Historical Notes – Dr. William Gibson


ChiMed – History of Medicine in China

Hosted by Albion College –

  • Medicine, science, and technology in East Asia
  • Medical history sites (other than E. Asia)
  • General history of science, technology and medicine
  • Resources on alternative medicine
  • EASCI: The History of East Asian Science Discussion Group


College of Physicians of Philadelphia

  • Educational and cultural not-for-profit society that focuses on the changing role of doctors in contemporary society and vital issues such as bioethics, the relevance of medical history for today’s policymakers, and the recognition that medicine is both an art and a science


Columbia University – History of Public Health and Medicine

Columbia University

  • Program in History of Public Health and Medicine (HPHM). Masters in Public Health and a PhD in Histor
  • The goal of the Program: knowledge and ability to work in academic, policy and administrative positions.
  • Public health practitioners, policy analysts, epidemiologists, practicing physicians, and lawyers, as well as recent college graduates with a background in history, sociology, political science, ethics or other humanities and social sciences are encouraged to apply for admission.

Dittrick Medical History Center

College of Arts and Sciences of Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio.

  • Dedicated to the study of the medical past through a distinguished collection of rare books
  • Museum artifacts, archives, and images
  • Selected bibliography of medical history in Ohio


Dying to have a Baby – The History of Child Birth

University of Manitoba

  • Two great curses haunted natural childbirth from ancient times, the shrunken pelvis and obstructed labour.
  • With urbanization and hospitalization, puerperal fever became common.
  • Because so often mothers died in childbirth and children in infancy, attitudes towards birth and babies were different from ours.
  • Parents expected that children would die in infancy, and death in childbirth was an expected tragedy.


From Quackery to Bacteriology

University of Toledo

  • From Quackery to Bacteriology: The Emergence of Modern Medicine in 19th Century America: An Exhibition


Galen II – Archives and Special Collections

University of California San Francisco

  • Overview of Collections
  • Contemporary Collecting Projects/Digital Archives
  • HISTLINE — History of Medicine database from the National Library of Medicine.
  • Additional Resources in the History of Medicine


Greater Glasgow Health Board (GGHB) Archive

  • The website provides a summary guide to archives of Glasgow hospitals, clinics and administrative bodies of the National Health Service in Glasgow.


Greek and Roman Medicine

Lee T. Pearcy
The Episcopal Academy
Merion, Pennsylvania 19066, USA

  • An Introductory Bibliography for Graduate Students in Classics


Gynecology – A Historical Perspective

  • Gynaecology may be said to be one of the most ancient branches of medicine
  • The papyrus of Ebers, which is one of the oldest known works on medicine and dates from 1550 B.C., contains references to the diseases of women, and it is recorded that specialism in this branch was known amongst Egyptian medical practitioners.
  • The Vedas contains a list of therapeutic agents used in the treatment of gynaecological diseases. From the 1910 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannia


Health Heritage Research Services

Christopher J. Rutty, Ph.D
Medical Historian – Health Heritage Consultant

  • Provides a wide range of medical history/health heritage research, writing, consulting and creative services to a wide range of clients. The HHRS Website provides further information, as well as a unique collection of Useful Health Heritage Internet Resources.


History of heart disease

Part of Franklin Institute Online

  • Milestones in Cardiology
  • Before 1900, very few people died of heart disease. Since then, heart disease has become the number one killer in the United States.


Historical Library of the Cushing/Whitney Medical Library

Medical Reference Library
Yale University

  • Large and unique collection of rare medical books, medical journals to 1920, pamphlets, prints, and photographs, as well as current works on the history of medicine
  • Selected Internet Resources in the History of Medicine and Science
  • Selected Special Collections and Archives in the History of Medicine
  • Using History of Science and Technology (HST) — Telnet Version to find
  • secondary sources in the history of science, technology, and medicine.
  • Using History of Science and Technology (HST) — WWW Version.
  • Using HISTLINE to find secondary sources in the History of Medicine.
  • Electronic Text Project


Historical Medical Tour of Galveston

University of Texas Medical Branch

  • Historical Medical Tour of Galveston is based on a brochure, ‘Galveston: Historical Medical Sites’, published by the The Chauncey Leake History of Medicine Society.


History of Biomedicine

Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden

  • General Museums,
  • Libraries & Special Collections
  • Indigenous Cultures
  • Mesopotamian Medicine
  • Ancient Egyptian Medicine
  • Traditional Chinese Medicine
  • Traditional Indian Medicine
  • Classical Islamic Biomedicine
  • Western Biomedicine: Ancient Period, – 499 A.D.; Medieval Period, 500 – 1450; Early Modern Period, 1451 – 1600; Modern Period, 1601 –
  • History of Diseases


History of Brain Surgery

  • Brain surgery is perhaps the oldest of the practiced medical arts. No hard evidence exists suggesting a beginning to the practice of other facets of medicine such as pharmacology — using drugs, chemical and natural ingredients to help a fellow human being. There is ample evidence, however, of brain surgery, dating back to the Neolithic (late Stone Age) period.


History of Medicine Division

National Library of Medicine

  • The National Library of Medicine’s resources for historical scholarship in medicine and related sciences are among the richest of any institution in the world. Collected over many years, the material in the History of Medicine Division (HMD) provides researchers with sources both rare in availability and exhaustive in scope.


History of Neurosurgery

Massachusetts General Hospital
Harvard Medical School

  • Ether – “We have conquered pain” A Celebration of Ether 1846-1996
  • Etherdome and the first public demonstration of general anesthesia for surgery
  • Positron Emission Tomography (link to Emory Center for PET)
  • History of Stereotactic Radiosurgery


History of Nutritional Science

G. R. (Bob) Frank

  • Useful bibliographical listings, including the full text of a chronology of the science of nutrition. ( )
  • Suggested reading fromJournal of Nutrition (abstracts can be browsed).
  • Some other material – primarily advertisments for books


History of the Health Sciences

Medical Library Association
Hosted by Duke University

  • Basic details about the section and the benefits it offers members
  • To stimulate and support interest in the history of the health sciences among libraries and librarians


Images from the History of Medicine

National Library of Medicine
National Institute of Health

  • Access to the nearly 60,000 images in prints and photographs
  • Includes portraits, pictures of institutions, caricatures, genre scenes, and graphic art in a variety of media, illustrating the social and historical aspects of medicine.

Institute of the History of Medicine

Department of the History of Science, Medicine and Technology
The Johns Hopkins University

  • General Information
  • History of Science, Medicine & Technology
  • General History Indices
  • Iconographic Indices
  • Library Catalogues
  • Archives & Manuscripts


International Bibliographic Guide to the History of Pathology

Axel W. Bauer
University of Heidelberg (Germany)

  • Contains references to over 1300 monographs and articles on the history of pathology which have been published between 1801 and 1996.
  • The documents themselves are not present.
  • Perhaps a good reference point for a PhD literature review.


History Of Pain Collection

John C. Liebeskind – History & Special Collections Division
University of California

  • Includes brief details of archival collections and other resources
  • Oral history catalogue of interviews with “scientists, physicians, and other health professionals in the field of pain, and with chronic pain patients”. The listing includes some biographical notes & abstracts.


John Shaw Billings History of Medicine Society

Indiana University School of Medicine

  • Basic contact and membership information with details of upcoming events


Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences

Oxford University Press

  • Tables of Contents and abstracts
  • Table of Contents email service


Journal of the History of the Neurosciences

Official Journal of the International Society for the History of the Neurosciences World Federation of Neurology Research Group for the History of the Neurosciences 1 European Club for the History of Neurology

  • How have the neurosciences developed since their earliest days?
  • Who defined the concepts we use today?
  • What factors influenced their findings and interpretations?
  • An understanding of their background principles, their knowledge at the time, and their human foibles enriches our knowledge in the 90’s of one of the fastest growing fields of science.


Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library

History & Special Collections Division
University of California

  • Online Sketches in Medical History
  • The Index of Medieval Medical Images with Illustrations
  • Online Sketches in Natural History: Charles Darwin – Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle-Birds
  • The Donald R. Dickey Collections of Vertebrate Zoology


Social Studies of Medicine

Department of Social Studies of Medicine
McGill University

  • Anthropology, History and Sociology – as they relate to medicine.
  • Only basic information on courses is provided


Medical Archives – Eskind Biomedical Library

Archives Collection
Vanderbilt Medical Center

  • Manuscript Collection & Institutional File Inventory
  • Adelia Marie Beeuwkes, Otto Billig, Frederic T. Billings, Franklin Church Bing, Bertlyn Bosley, Barney Brooks, John Harold Browe, ….
  • NB: Access is through a cgi script so you must enter from the Archives link off the Eskind Biomedical Library Home Page


Medical History on the Internet

Department of Anesthesiology Library
School of Medicine
University of Alabama at Birmingham

  • A page of links to all sorts of places – some worth a look some not. Does have a Table of Contents of sorts


Milestones in Neuroscience Research

University of Washington

  • A Chronological History from 4000 BC to the present day
  • Links to some other very good sites related to Neuroscience
  • Neuroscience for Kids is


Brain and the nature of consciousness incl. Neurophysiology

A Web Project supported by the Creative Development Branch of the Australian Film Commission

  • Introduction – Papers by various Authors
  • philosophy
  • Neuro-physiology
  • quantum physics
  • speculations
  • neural networks
  • organised systems


John Snow (1813-1858)
public health, epidemiology and anesthesiology.

Dept. of Epidemiology
School of Public Health
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)

  • Cholera
  • Anesthesia
  • Epidemiology


Primary Care Internet Guide – Medical History

Links to:

  • Libraries
  • Documents
  • Compilations of resources
  • Museums


Prosthetic History Page

Northwestern University Prosthetic-Orthotic Center
Single file article

  • History and Prosthetics
  • Man’s Awakening
  • Egypt, Greece, and Rome
  • Age of Armor
  • Age of Enlightenment
  • Growth of Modern Medicine …


Race-Sci History of “Race” in Science, Medicine, and Technology

Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, Massachusetts USA

  • Teaching tool for scholars and students interested in the history of the concept “race” in science, medicine, and technology in the 19th and 20th centuries
  • Extensive bibliography, announcements, and syllabi sampler


Bibliography of Recent Secondary Works in the History of American Medicine and Related Health Fields

Ruth Lilly Medical Library
Indiana University

  • Non-critical electronic bibliography to acquaint the user with recent monographs and classic works in the field of American history of medicine and related topics.
  • Laid up as a single page with no navigation
  • Useful for a project bibliographic reference source


Resources in the History of Idiocy

Murray Simpson
University of Dundee
Scotland UK

  • Bibliographies – Online texts – Online texts hosted elsewhere – Online articles on the history of idiocy – Other links


Social History of Medicine (Journal)

Published by Oxford University Press

  • Tables of Contents and abstracts for Vol. 9 (1996) onwards can be browsed and searched


Southwest School of Botanical Medicine

Bisbee, Arizona

  • Medicinal Plant Images (over 1300)
  • Manuals, Folios, Classic Texts, Research
  • Medicinal Plants: Resources, FAQs, Regional plant checklists


Society for the Social History of Medicine

  • Contact Details – the rest did not load properly (missing files)


Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives

The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
A guide to the libraries holdings information on:

  • Photographic holdings, biographical files, and personal papers. Includes EAD encoded versions of finding aids to a number of collections of personal papers


The Center for The Study of The History of Nursing

School of Nursing
University of Pennsylvania

  • Hospitals, Schools of Nursing and Nursing Alumni Associations, Voluntary Non-Profit Associations, Professional and Military Associations, Individuals, Miscellaneous Groups, Other Sources


Discovery of Insulin

  • to preserve and promote the history behind one of the most important medical discoveries of our time – the discovery of insulin. The team consisting of Dr. F.G. Banting, Mr. C.H. Best, Mr. J.B. Collip and Prof. J.J.R. MacLeod discovered insulin in 1921 at the University of Toronto. While insulin is not a cure, this medical discovery has and continues to save millions of lives around the world.

Margaret Sanger Papers Project
Department of History

New York University

  • The Project was formed in 1985 to locate, arrange, edit, research, and publish the papers of the noted birth control pioneer.
  • Selected Papers of Margaret Sanger
  • Sanger Documents on the Web
  • Microfilm Edition
  • Proposed Electronic Edition
  • Margaret Sanger Papers Newsletter

Professional Development of Rehabilitation in Australia, 1870-1981

Philippa Martyr
Thesis – Doctor of Philosophy (1994),
Department of History, University of Western Australia

  • The history of rehabilitation in Australia: previous studies and theoretical approaches.
  • Medical orthodoxy in Australia, 1850-1900
  • From `quackery’ to qualification: the legitimisation of massage and electrotherapy in Australia, 1870-1914
  • “What is the good of half a man?” Rehabilitation, the Great War and its aftermath, 1914-1930
  • “Joyous usefulness”: poliomyelitis, the Kenny controversy and rehabilitation, 1930-1939
  • Reconstructing the body politic: rehabilitation and post-war reconstruction, 1940-1950
  • The battle continues: rehabilitation, the hospitals and the professions, 1945-1970
  • Enemies within? Exclusion and independence in rehabilitation, 1970-1981


Thomas Jefferson University Archives & Special Collections

  • Only A basic Overview of the Collections is provided


Truman G. Blocker, Jr. History of Medicine Collections

Moody Medical Library

Claims to house the largest collection in the history of the biomedical sciences in the southern United States

  • Only A basic Overview of the Collections is provided


University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Medical Museum

  • Basic Information about the Museum, its objectives and history of exhibitions.


History of Medicine in the United Kingdom

The Wellcome Trust

  • History of medicine in the UK: an evaluation
  • History of medicine research funding programme awards – some 300 grants a year to researchers in the UK, the Republic of Ireland and The Netherlands – four History of Medicine Units at the Universities of East Anglia, Manchester, Glasgow and Oxford.
  • See also the WellcomeHistory of Medicine Library Overview of Collections, Programs, & Journals


Zwerdling Nursing Archives

  • Fine art and rare photographic postcards of the nursing profession from the late 19th century to the present. Some small samples are provided for viewing.